Is Space Expanding Or Is Our Universe Expanding In Space?

In nearly any introductory textbook on astronomy or primer on cosmology, you are certain to learn that the Universe is increasing (true sufficient) as a result of area itself is increasing, and like dots painted on a balloon being blown up, the flotsam and jetsam of the Universe is spreading aside, one way or the other ‘glued’ to that increasing area. How any astronomer or cosmologist can write such claptrap with a straight face is kind of past me.

My primary premise right here is that if area itself is increasing, then area itself is a factor. Widespread sense tells you that area is just not a factor. You can’t see it, hear it, contact it, really feel it or style it. In case you assume area is a factor, effectively seize maintain of a few of it and attempt to stretch or increase it (however do it in non-public or others will doubt your sanity). Whether or not you discuss 3-D area (quantity) or the 4 dimensional space-time (time being the fourth dimension), it’s simply the empty stage, IMHO, the place the drama of actual issues is performed out.

To my mind-set, not-things (like area, time and dimensions* usually) will be subdivided indefinitely. They’re steady. Regardless of the size, space or quantity, no matter you might have will be divided in half and in half many times and once more and you continue to have a size, space or quantity. Issues have a built-in restrict as to how far that factor in query will be divided down earlier than you hit elementary bedrock. Eventually you hit and enter the realm of the electron, these quarks, neutrinos, photons, gluons, gravitons and different power and matter particles that can’t be divided down any farther. These are issues.

EXPANDING SPACE

So if area itself is increasing, effectively that is nonsense as a result of…

There’s area between your ears, however that does not imply you are getting a swelled head!

You progress via present area when going from residence to the workplace, to the grocery store or going to a overseas metropolis on enterprise or trip. When commuting to the workplace, the gap between residence and workplace does not enhance each day.

The Moon orbits the Earth via present area. The Moon is getting farther away of the Earth each day. Even there’s lots of area between the Earth and the Moon, and the Moon is getting additional away from the Earth, that is not as a result of area is increasing, however due to tidal forces.

The Earth/Moon pair orbits the Solar via present area. There’s lots of interplanetary area between the Earth/Moon system and the Solar, however the Earth/Moon to Solar distance hasn’t modified in hundreds of millennia.

The Solar (and photo voltaic system) orbits across the heart of the Milky Means Galaxy although present area. There’s lots of interstellar area between the Solar and the galactic heart however the Solar is not getting any extra distant from that heart.

Thus far, so good: even astronomers and cosmologists will agree with that evaluation. However swiftly, with a snap of their fingers, as soon as out in intergalactic area issues transfer aside, or reasonably galaxies (of which our Milky Means is certainly one of billions and billions) transfer other than different galaxies as if being carried piggyback on an increasing intergalactic area (which nonetheless is similar area as interplanetary and interstellar area).

Truly there’s an exception of each galaxy shifting away from each different galaxy – clusters of galaxies which might be cheek-by-jowl are certain collectively by their mutual gravity, and someday in such a cluster galaxies can method one another. A working example has our personal Milky Means Galaxy, and the Andromeda Galaxy on a collision course, however relaxation straightforward, the intersection will not occur for one more 5 billion years – give or take one million.

However wait, is not each galaxy within the observable universe certain or attracted by gravity to each different galaxy? I imply the power of gravity does not prolong outwards after which sooner or later fall off a cliff, or get shut down and off.

If area is increasing, then area is a factor with properties. What are the properties of a factor that expands?

Commonest are 2-D constructions. You set further air in your tires, it is the rubber that expands; whereas blowing up a balloon, effectively it is that membrane-like floor that stretches; you might have stretching materials (just like the elastic in your underwear). The oft used cosmology textbook analogy is portray dots (representing the galaxies) on the floor of an increasing balloon (representing increasing area), and because the balloon expands the ‘galactic’ dots get additional aside. However the analogy fails as a result of the balloon’s increasing floor is a one thing. Apart from, all 2-D analogies aren’t well worth the paper they’re written on since 1) the precise Universe is 3-D and a couple of) there are 3-D analogies obtainable.

So there are fairly frequent 3-D analogies. A complete rock will increase, not simply the floor, sitting out within the scorching solar; a rising cake or soufflé or baking raisin bread are frequent examples within the kitchen. The analogy oft given is that of baking raisin bread, the place the raisins are the galaxies and the increasing bread is akin to area, and thus the ‘galactic’ raisins get additional and additional aside because the bread expands. However this analogy fails too as a result of the raisin bread is a one thing.

Now when one thing expands, it will get thinner or extra dilute. As you retain placing on weight, the elastic in your underwear stretches thinner and thinner. Within the case of the raisin loaf, if you happen to begin with a 500 gram mass of dough in a container of say 300 cubic centimeters, what you find yourself with is 500 grams in say a quantity of 500 cubic centimeters. The identical quantity of stuff, in a bigger quantity, signifies that the stuff has been diluted.

If area is a one thing, and area itself is increasing or stretching, then area should be getting thinner and/or extra dilute over time. If nonetheless, this space-as-a-something stays fixed over time, regardless that it is increasing, you then’re getting a free lunch – one thing from nothing. That further area is being manufactured by forces unknown out of nothing in any respect. Claptrap!

SPACE-TIME

Anybody who’s anybody who is aware of a bit about gravity and Common Relativity is aware of that space-time is versatile. Mass ‘tells’ space-time the best way to flex; how space-time flexes ‘tells’ mass the best way to transfer. Nonetheless, that additionally implies that space-time is a factor, a bodily medium that may be manipulated.

Matter and vitality and related forces and power particles are two sides of the identical coin as associated by Einstein’s well-known equation. So, that needs to be adequate for any and all actions, reactions, interactions, and so on. to be explainable with out resorting to warped space-time. Nonetheless, let us take a look at essentially the most well-known illustration of alleged warped space-time, the experimental statement that proved Einstein’s prediction that Mass certainly ‘tells’ space-time the best way to flex and the way space-time flexes ‘tells’ mass the best way to transfer. The working example was the deflection of photons of sunshine emitted by a star whose gentle handed very near our Solar. That deflection meant that observers on Earth noticed the star ever so barely out of place whereas the Solar was within the line-of-sight neighborhood. (All this was noticed throughout a photo voltaic eclipse; in any other case the starlight would have been drowned out by the Solar’s gentle.) The reason: starlight photons (mass or vitality) need to go straight however space-time was warped and thus these photons bought deflected from the straight and slim. Effectively, that is a technique of taking a look at it.

Alternatively, the starlight’s light-wave photons are issues; the Solar is a factor; the Solar’s gravity is a factor. So objects, matter and vitality, issues present in area and time that go throughout the Solar’s gravity, needs to be affected, on this case deflected from their straight and slim path. Why invoke warped space-time? It could be a pleasant approach of taking a look at issues, however airbrushing is not confined to only the style business!

Roll an iron ball previous a magnet and you will get a deflection from the straight and slim – like with the photon and the Solar. However roll a marble previous the identical magnet and the marble will proceed on straight and true. So, the trajectory of the iron ball or the marble vs. the magnet (a part of the electromagnetic power) has nothing to do with warped space-time, although the motion befell in space-time.

Take your primary trilogy of quarks (in a neutron or proton) who love one another so dearly that they can not stand to be aside. In case you power them aside, the sturdy nuclear power which usually retains the quarks cheek-by-jowl will simply get stronger the farther aside you pull the trio of quarks aside – like a rubber band being stretched. Whenever you launch your maintain on this threesome, they snap again collectively. Their path deviates again from what you dictated – nothing to do with warped space-time although the motion befell in space-time.

Or take the decay of an unstable atomic nucleus. The castoff particles hit different unstable nuclei cascading off extra bits and items which hit extra unstable nuclei on the brink, and so on. You get a series response, even maybe a nuclear blast. That is the weak nuclear power in motion. Once more, that is not depending on warped space-time although the chain response takes place in space-time.

However let’s again to the warping of space-time which appears allegedly to be the windfall of gravity and simply gravity.

However what sort of flexing, or space-time warping may account for many (not all) galaxies operating away from most (not all) different galaxies – precise observations of the increasing Universe. None that’s apparent and leaps to thoughts aside from a kind of infinite Mexican sombrero sort construction the place all giant clumps of matter (most galaxies) begin off on the prime of the hat and roll off, to the north, south, east and west, and all factors of the compass in-between, all the way down to the – effectively the ‘down’ does not finish. However one way or the other you need to image that in 3-D because the floor of the ‘sombrero’, the place all of the motion is, is 2-D.

CONSEQUENCES

When you settle for the concept the notion of area itself is increasing – area itself creating more room out of nothing – is whole nonsense, then sure penalties observe. One is that the stuff of the Universe is increasing via present area reasonably than the stuff of the Universe being carried piggyback on the again of area. If the stuff of the Universe is increasing via present area, the stuff of the Universe has at all times expanded via present area. Current area was current all through the Universe’s enlargement proper again unto the start – that Massive Bang occasion. If area existed on the time of the Massive Bang occasion then area existed earlier than the Massive Bang occasion, because the Massive Bang occasion wanted area to bang into, identical to every other explosive occasion you possibly can consider, from a firecracker to an H-Bomb to a supernova has to occur in present area. Due to this fact there was an existence earlier than the Massive Bang. There was a earlier than the Massive Bang and no matter cosmology accounts for the Massive Bang must take that under consideration.

IS THERE AN OBSERVATIONAL TEST?

Is there any precise observational proof that proves conclusively that it’s area increasing and never flotsam and jetsam shifting aside via present area? No. However I can consider a potential take a look at or two that may conclude the difficulty. If area is increasing then objects which might be approaching one another (just like the Milky Means Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy) as a result of mutual gravity or due to intrinsic movement, needs to be preventing in opposition to the grain and be approaching one another extra slowly than would in any other case be the case. Or, alternatively, two objects receding aside, just like the Earth and the Moon (as a result of tidal forces) are going with the grain and needs to be separating extra quickly than in any other case can be the case. I’ve but to learn any account of this kind of measurement and observational affirmation which might solely come up if the velocities of the Milky Means/Andromeda pair or Earth/Moon pair have been certainly anomalous. The latter experiment, the growing Earth/Moon separation needs to be a comparatively straightforward experiment to do. Because of the reflective mirrors lent on the lunar floor by the Apollo moonwalkers we all know the Earth-Moon distance to excessive precision. It needs to be simple whether or not the Moon is receding from the Earth quicker than tidal forces can account for.

CONCLUSIONS

There is a very strong precept in science often called Occam’s Razor, which just about states that when confronted with a pot-full of competing concepts or explanations, guess the household farm on the one which makes the least assumptions and appears essentially the most simple. In different phrases, “hold it easy, silly!” Making use of Occam’s Razor, there’s an easy and commonsense reply to this claptrap. All objects at any scale transfer via present area. Area simply is – it comprises issues from the vitality of the (not so good) vacuum to interplanetary/interstellar/intergalactic fuel and dirt, to photo voltaic techniques, to quasars, to the most important of galactic clusters. Due to this fact, if now, then approach again when. The origin of the Universe additionally befell in present area. The Massive Bang occasion didn’t create area for area is just not a tangible factor that may be created. Additional, there is no astronomical, observable take a look at (other than the probabilities I advised above and variations on these themes) that may distinguish between increasing area, and matter increasing via area.

And in case you are of a spiritual way of thinking (and I am not), effectively God could not have created the heavens and the earth; life the universe and all the pieces, except God had some present area by which to work. God Himself took up area.

 

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